Tuesday, 23 May 2017

World War I soldier, William James Barrett

This is my final essay for the Diploma in Family History, through the University of Tasmania.
After three years of readings, quizzes, research and assessments it is a bit of a relief to have finished.
I'm looking forward to UTAS coming up with an Advanced Diploma, and a bit of a break before it starts is very welcome.

This essay is a biography of a First World War soldier, sailor, or nurse. We were to write about their experience in the war and contextualise it within the broader history of the war. I've left off the Bibliography. Now to wait for the marks to be released..........

William James Barrett was my great-grandfather’s half-brother. Born in Sydney in September 1883, at only nine months of age he was severely assaulted by his father, and at age two he was admitted into New South Wales’ rudimentary foster care system, living with nine different families by the time he was returned to the care of his mother at age 16. This harsh early life may have prepared William for the stresses of serving in World War I.

Despite the 1917 voluntary enlistment rates falling well below the expected rate[1] William Barrett enlisted on 13 March 1917[2]. The heavy losses suffered by the AIF in a war that had been raging for almost 1,000 days meant that many more men were needed to bolster the numbers, and provide more manpower on all fronts. At the time, voluntary enlistment rather than conscription was the method used to recruit men to serve in World War I, particularly after a negative result towards conscription in the referendum held by Australian Prime Minister, Billy Hughes. The referendum did not specifically ask for an agreement towards conscription, rather seeking public approval to send men overseas to fight[3].

On the home front, William would have been subject to pressure to enlist from his fiancĂ©e, Emma Hill, whose own father, Richard, was away fighting with the 25th Battalion. In June 1915, at age 44½ Hill had enlisted in Brisbane into the Battalion’s 3rd Reinforcements, having previously served with the NSW Bushmen in the Boer War[4]. While Emma’s brothers, David, Robert, and Jack were too young to enlist, their enthusiasm and desire for the perceived adventure that war could provide could have been factors that swayed William towards enlisting, bolstering his image in the eyes of his future brothers-in-law.

HMAT A20 Hororata http://alh-research.tripod.com/ships_lh.htm
Leaving Sydney on the HMAT A20 Hororata on 14th June 1917, the 9th Battalion 25th Reinforcements were a group of 152 men, consisting of 11 New South Welshmen and 141 Queenslanders[5].

On enlistment 33-year-old William was soon to be married to Emma, mother of his son, 9-month-old Frederick. Both of his parents had died in his birthplace of Sydney four years prior, and he noted his 13-year-old sister, Rita Lillian Barrett, as his next of kin. These next of kin details were amended shortly after William’s marriage to Emma, one month after enlistment. His War Service Record lists his age at enlistment as 37 years 5 months, four years older than was true[6]. The average age for men enlisting was 26 in 1916, falling to 24 by 1918[7], making William one of the war’s older recruits.

Janelle Collins, William James, Frederick, and Emma Barrett, 1917, digital image, personal collection.

During the first year of the war a third [of men trying to enlist] were rejected due to ill health or poor physical condition[8]. At only 5’4” and weighing 126 lbs William was recorded as having scars on both shins, a scar from a hernia operation, and scars on his chest and right arm. Complications from this hernia operation necessitated his early discharge from the Battalion after only four months of active service These debilitating and embarrassing symptoms afflicted him for the rest of his life. Fearing rejection from the Army, he may not have mentioned these symptoms to the Examining Medical Officer, or the stress of service and the conditions in Belgium may have exacerbated them.

After three months of infantry training at Durrington in England, William’s 25th Battalion was joined to the 3rd Infantry Battalion at Lark Hill, Salisbury, England, where they were sent straight to Chateau Segard near Ypres in Belgium. From here they were marched to Anzac Ridge, a distance of almost 20 kilometres.

While no personal letters from William to his family survive, Lieutenant Colonel Moore, Commander of the 3rd Infantry Battalion AIF kept detailed diaries of the events and action that took place during William’s service with the Battalion[9].
During the four brutal months that William was serving with the 3rd Infantry Battalion (October 1917 to January 1918) the men spent a month at Broodseinde Ridge and Passchendale, followed by two months over winter in nearby Messines. Most days were bitterly cold and wet, with much mud and snow, particularly on Christmas Eve.  Battalion order No.45 for 16th December 1917 had the men woken by reveille at 0230, with breakfast at 0300. Their training syllabus stated that “All officers are to bear in mind that the guiding principle is to train and harden the unfit”[10].
These diaries show troop movements, battles and the number of casualties. Only officers are mentioned by name. When the Company Commanders reported by wire that their men were all in position Lieutenant and Adjutant, Cecil J Clifton, would announce these words: “Rum has been issued”[11]. I’m sure that in the circumstances, many or even all the men at all levels of command were wishing that these words were a reality and not just code.

On the home front women, including Emma, were expected to keep the country going and were encouraged to support the war effort by joining voluntary organisations to raise money for the war. In addition to this they were often involved with organisations such as the Australian Red Cross and the Cheer-up Society[12]. While working to feed their families and keep a roof over their heads women were also expected to write letters to their own soldier and others, and knit socks and balaclavas, all which would have been of great comfort to the men.

William’s unit, the 3rd Division, was under the ultimate command of Major General John Monash, and was assigned to the II ANZAC Corps. At the Battle of Broodseinde Ridge on 4th October 1917, the 3rd Division advanced 1,800 metres, but suffered a toll of 1,800 killed or wounded. After holding the line for three days they withdrew for rest and reorganisation. Three days later they advanced over 2,700 metres but lost almost 3,200 men. They were eventually removed from the front line on 22 October as the Canadians took over from them. The fighting around Passchendaele proved to be the division's last offensive actions for 1917 and they spent the winter months in the rear training, or undertaking defensive duties in reasonably quiet sectors of the line as they were reformed and brought back up to strength[13]. The impact of all the devastation and destruction witnessed by William and the remainder of the 3rd Division is unimaginable.

William returned to Australia on the RMS Osterley in April 1918. Being discharged at Brisbane due to debility could have caused William mixed emotions. He may have been relieved to be home from war, but also missing the men of his Division who would have become like brothers after facing such harrowing conditions.  The division was out of the line when news of the Armistice came on 11 November 1918. Following the end of hostilities, the demobilisation process began and as men were repatriated back to Australia, the division was eventually disbanded on 28 May 1919[14].

Once at home in Brisbane William’s service was discharged on 17th May 1918. Prior to his war service William was recorded as being previously employed as a farmer, carter, coal miner, and labourer. His Repatriation Record[15] shows his desire to find employment as a Railway Servant, an occupation he held until his death in 1938, taking him from Roma to Murgon. William’s medical conditions were apparent prior to enlistment, as noted on his War Service Record[16], although his symptoms were recorded as originated “since enlistment”[17].


William’s death in December 1938[18] was caused by cerebral thrombosis and arteriosclerosis, being age and lifestyle-related in nature rather than being caused by his war service. He is buried in an unmarked grave at Wondai Cemetery in south-east Queensland.

[1] Petrow, Stefan, HAA107 Families at War – Module 2 Chapter 2: Fighting for Australia? Volunteers vs   Conscripts, Accessed 10 May 2017.
[2] Service Record of William James Barrett, B2455, National Archives of Australia
[3] Petrow, Stefan, Fighting for Australia? Volunteers vs Conscripts
[4] Service Record of Richard Hill, B2455, National Archives of Australia
[5] UNSW Australia, ‘The AIF Project’, https://www.aif.adfa.edu.au/showUnit?unitCode=INF9REIN25 , Accessed 10 May 2017.
[6]  Service Record of William James Barrett, B2455, National Archives of Australia
[8] Tyquin, Michael, ‘Unjustly accused? Medical authorities and army recruitment in Australia 1914 – 1918’, Journal of Military and Veteran’s Health, Vol. 22, No. 2 (2014), http://jmvh.org/article/unjustly-accused-medical-authorities-and-army-recruitment-in-australia-1914-1918/ . Accessed 15 May 2017.

[9] Australian War Memorial AWM4 Subclass 23/3 – 3rd Infantry Brigade, Australian Imperial Force unit war diaries, 1914-18 War, https://www.awm.gov.au/collection/RCDIG1000570/ October 1917, November 1917, December 1917, January 1918. Accessed 10 May 2017.
[10] Australian War Memorial AWM4 Subclass 23/3 – 3rd Infantry Brigade, Australian Imperial Force unit war diaries, 1914-18 War, https://www.awm.gov.au/collection/RCDIG1000570/ December 1917. Accessed 10 May 2017.
[11] Australian War Memorial AWM4 Subclass 23/3 – 3rd Infantry Brigade, Australian Imperial Force unit war diaries, 1914-18 War, https://www.awm.gov.au/collection/RCDIG1000570/ October 1917. Accessed 10 May 2017.
[12] State Library of New South Wales, ‘World War I and Australia: Homefront’,

[13] Palazzo, Albert, Defenders of Australia: The 3rd Australian Division 1916–1991. Loftus, Australian Military Historical Publications, 2002, pages 37-40.
[14] Palazzo, Albert, Defenders of Australia: The 3rd Australian Division 1916–1991, page 54.
[15] Repatriation Record of William James Barrett, BP709/1, National Archives of Australia.
[16]  Service Record of William James Barrett, B2455, National Archives of Australia.
[17]  Repatriation Record of William James Barrett, BP709/1, National Archives of Australia.
[18] Death Certificate of William James Barrett, died 06 December 1938, Registrar of Births, Deaths and Marriages, Queensland, 4818/1938.

Sunday, 19 March 2017

Sometimes it takes more than one source to find an answer

Thanks to NSW Births Deaths & Marriages and the skill of transcription agents such as Laurie Turtle, I have the birthplace of my great-grandfather's half-sister as "Off Cowles Road, Middle Harbour, Mosman". Mosman is a beautiful harbour-side suburb just north of Sydney. Her birth was registered as Arita Lillian Barrett, but she was known as Rita, and her death transcription lists this name.

Because I am extra fussy, I wanted an actual physical address for this event, and it took a number of sources to get there. Cowles Road is 1.3 km long, and "Off Cowles Road" includes about 20 side streets, so I knew I had to get really specific. I emailed Mosman Library, asking if they knew of any hospitals that were operating in 1904, but no luck there.

My next online search was the City of Sydney Library's Sands Directories, a searchable list of Sydney, suburban and country households and businesses from 1858 to 1933. These are like the White Pages and Yellow Pages combined, but without phone numbers. I could look through them all day, every day. They're fascinating. Most properties were known by their house name rather than number, so that was interesting, but wouldn't help me find the property on a current map.

To most effectively search within the Sands Directory I needed a name, and the person named as Present at Birth was Mrs Cleland (nurse).

The only Cleland in the suburb of Mosman in 1904 was D Cleland, who was listed under "Glover Street - South side", and his name is the last name before the Bardwell Road intersection. Glover Street does come off Cowles Road, and Bardwell Road intersects Glover Street, so it looked like the hospital was on the southern side of Glover Street.

Sands Directory, 1904

Where Bardwell Road intersects with the southern side of Glover Street there are two properties to choose from, one on each side of Bardwell Road. There are 55 houses along the south side of Glover Street now (2017) compared to 1904, when there were only 15. The house I wanted (according to Sands) was the last one before Bardwell Road. On a current map the house on that corner is number 32a. 

Google Maps 2017

Thanks to Google street view I can see that the Glover Street facade of the house looks like it was originally one big home converted into two, which was probably the case if the house had been large enough to be a private hospital.

Google street view image 2009
The NSW Government's land and mapping agency, SixMaps, provides a crisper aerial view than Google Maps, which is better for reproducing here. 

Aerial view from SixMaps NSW 2017
Without delving into land deeds and title searches (I'm saving that for another blog post), I thought I would look on some real estate websites to see photos taken inside the property, and found that 32 and 32a Glover Street was apparently built in 1920, some 16 years after Rita was born. This will require some more investigation, as I'm guessing that this date might only be an estimate. So while I was disappointed not to see the actual room Rita was born in (which I realise is quite unlikely), I was happy to have a more specific location than "Off Cowles Road".

PS Further checking on Trove revealed that Nurse Cleland's six-roomed weatherboard house was destroyed by fire in October 1919, so a build date of 1920 could be accurate after all!

Monday, 15 August 2016

And another one.....

This final assessment task was an object biography, which I hadn't heard of before, but that's why I'm doing this course, to learn new things!

My object is a 9 carat gold brooch inset with ruby and garnet stones, handed down to me through the women in my father’s family. Probably originally a gift to my great grandmother, Ivy Lorne Cruckshank (1879-1947) presumably from her husband, Edward James O’Neill (1876-1962), it was inherited by their eldest daughter, Florence Mary O’Neill (1910-1985), then her only daughter Marea May Collins (1946-), then on to me as only niece who is interested in following the family tree and recording our family stories for future generations. I was also chosen as the recipient of this piece as Ivy and I share the same birthday of August 7th.

This brooch is still in its original leather case with the jeweller’s label inside. The label reads:


Techniques & processes used in manufacturing the brooch 

My research has revealed that the brooch is made from 9 carat gold, as identified on the rear by the “9C” marking stamped into the back of the lower horizontal bar. It weighs 2.3 grams.

The piece is comprised of two horizontal parallel bars terminating in a gold sphere. Surmounted centrally by a swirl of gold, mounted by two gold flowers, one with a garnet stone as the centre of the flower, the other with a ruby stone as the centre. Both flowers are etched on the gold petals. Mounted further towards each end is a gold etched leaf. The top and bottom of the two bars have gold swirl patterns attached, made of gold that has a corrugated texture. Each bar is made of a fine layer of gold worked into a bar shape and then filled with wax to give the bars strength. The fine holes on one end of each bar are where the wax was poured into the bar (see photo below).

Dating the brooch

There are no hallmarks on the brooch to date it accurately, so I have relied upon research done on other similar brooches that have the same look and feel as my piece. In an email (1) from estate jeweller, Tom Muir, from Morpeth Antique Jewellery Gallery he says: “my opinion is that the brooch is before 1920”.

Further research using Carter’s Price Guide to Antiques (2) into gold bar brooches indicates that the brooch was made between 1910 and 1915, as it is similar in look to other Australian brooches made around that time.

The brooch being in its original leather display case is a bonus, as the case bears a sticker with the name and location of the jewellery store it was purchased from: E. HENNINGS, Jeweller, CESSNOCK.
Research into the Sands Directories: Sydney and New South Wales, Australia, 1858-1933 (3) has shown that EH Hennings was a jeweller in Cessnock, NSW, from 1914 to 1934.

Hennings’ arrival in Cessnock was mentioned on page 3 of The Cessnock Eagle and South Maitland Recorder (NSW : 1913-1954) on Friday 2 Jan 1914: “Mr. E. Hennings, a prominent resident and business man of South Grafton has purchased Mr.Voisey’s Watchmaking and Jewellery business.” (4)
His departure was also written up in The Cessnock Eagle and South Maitland Recorder (NSW : 1913-1954): Mr. E. Hennings, who has carried on business as a jeweller in Cessnock for the past 20 years, and who is leaving the district to establish a similar business in Scone, was farewelled...” (5)
Knowing when the store was operating in Cessnock helps to date the case, and therefore the piece itself. The case looks to be of the same vintage and appears almost tailor-made to house the brooch.
Other dating evidence is the tube hinge, and its simple “C” clasp, which was used before safety catches became commonly used on pinned jewellery. The blog www.jewellerymuse.wordpress.com states that:

The ‘T-bar pins and c-clasp’ types were used from the 18th Century up until the around 1910s, after which they fell out of favour.” (6)

Practical and symbolic uses

In the previously mentioned email from Tom Muir (1), he says: “it has many uses it can be worn on the front of the neck or on the front to hang a watch or attach a muff chain”.  In symbolic terms it may have been a gift or token of love, or possibly even peace offering after a tiff. Maybe Ivy bought it for herself after falling in love with it in the shop window.

Made by

The manufacturing jeweller’s name is unknown. It may have been Ernest H. Hennings himself, an employee of his, or the brooch may have been bought as retail stock to fill his new shop in 1914. It may have been brought over from his previous South Grafton store when he moved to Cessnock, and been placed in the leather brooch case with his Cessnock store’s label on it. There are no other identifying hallmarks on the piece or the case other than the gold carat marking of 9C.

Made for

This brooch may have been commissioned for or by Ivy, or could have been general retail stock purchased for Hennings’ jewellery store.

Alteration and damage

Some of the gold swirls have become slightly straightened, most likely from them being caught on clothing over the many years of its use.

Preservation and treatment

This brooch has been kept in its leather case for the past 100 years. Repairs will only be carried out by a specialist antique jewellery restorer. It has had no other treatments or repairs in its lifetime.

Effects, feelings, messages created

I am thrilled to be the current custodian of the brooch, and plan to hand it onto one of my daughters. I am impressed by the workmanship, and feel that the jeweller may have been showing off his skills in fine gold sculpting. It is an exquisite piece which is well crafted, showing layers of detail and craftsmanship.

How and why stored

It has been stored in its original leather case (which measures 85 mm x 34 mm x 22 mm) in a dressing table drawer, and now in a desk drawer. It is away from sunlight and potential water damage.

Oral history provenance

My aunt, Marea Smith, informed me in an oral history interview (7) that it was her mother’s. It would have been given to her by her mother, Ivy, & Ivy was most likely given it by her husband, Edward.


1. Tom Muir, e-mail message to author, July 17, 2016.
2. Carter’s Price Guide to Antiques "Bar - Brooches - Carter's Price Guide To Antiques And Collectables". 2016.Carters.Com.Au. Accessed August 10 2016. http://www.carters.com.au/index.cfm/index/4556-brooches-bar/.
3. Sands Directories: Sydney and New South Wales, Australia, 1858-1933 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations Inc, 2010. Accessed August 10 2016.
4. "Current Notes - The Cessnock Eagle And South Maitland Recorder (NSW : 1913 - 1954) - 2 Jan 1914". 2016. Trove. Accessed August 10 2016.
5. "POPULAR TOWNSMAN FAREWELLED - Mr. E. Hennings Going To Scone. Presentation From Rifle Club - The Cessnock Eagle And South Maitland Recorder (NSW : 1913 - 1954) - 2 Mar 1934". 2016. Trove. Accessed August 10 2016.
6. "Five Tips On How To Date A Vintage Brooch…. With Pictures To Help!". 2013. The Jewellery Muse. Accessed August 10 2016. https://jewellerymuse.wordpress.com/2013/05/11/tips-on-how-to-date-a-vintage-brooch/.
7. Smith, Marea. Interview by author. iPhone recording. Point Frederick, New South Wales, March 5, 2016.

Another University of Tasmania assessment for the Place, Image, Object subject in the Diploma of Family History

For this assessment we produced an annotated map of a place of significance to us.
I chose Cessnock Cemetery, which is the resting place of quite a few of my ancestors.

A 250-word maximum reflective statement was part of the assessment:

My intention was to honour my ancestors with a visual representation of their burial places. I chose Cessnock Cemetery at Nulkaba, because many generations of our family are buried there, the earliest being my great-great-grandfather, John Cruckshank, in 1912. My father’s parents, great-grandparents, and four of his eight great-grandparents are all at Nulkaba.

To annotate this map I included photographs, funeral notices and headstone photos to add visual interest and personalise the plan.

As children visiting the cemetery we were aware of the differences between the religious sections - that people wanted to stay with their own faith, even after death. Being from a Catholic family it felt strange to be visiting the Anglican section, although we have two sets of ancestors buried there. One couple and their 12-year-old daughter (after whom my grandmother was named) were staunch Anglicans, the other couple were buried together even though she was Irish Catholic and he was Anglican. 

There were several challenges. The plot numbers aren’t visible, and I had to rely on memory and previous photos to help me locate the sites. Some of the burials are more recent than Trove, so I was unable to obtain funeral notices for these people. Also, Google Earth wouldn’t print with enough detail so I used SIX maps for the base map of the cemetery. Another challenge was that Cessnock City Council’s cemetery maps are not consistent sizes, so when joined together they don’t properly represent the actual layout of the plots within the cemetery.

Results should be in within a couple of weeks. If nothing else I got to enjoy another trip to my favourite cemetery.

Thursday, 23 June 2016

Convict Ancestors Story for UTAS Diploma in Family History

I'm loving the Diploma offered by the University of Tasmania. Another subject completed, and lots of information learned along the way. This article below was a submission for the final assessment in the Convict Ancestors subject. There were also two breakout articles, which I have left off the story. I might add them later as separate posts.

My 5x great-grandmother, Esther Salamon, was a formidable convict woman, who showed great strength and fortitude throughout her long life. After 482 days in London’s Newgate prison, a voyage of 5 months and 19 days, through at least four marriages and de facto partnerships, she established and ran successful businesses as a dealer, boarding house mistress, and bathing house proprietor in the colony of Sydney, as well as providing for her 16 children [1].

Based on Esther’s age at her trial, later marriage, and date of death it seems that Esther was born sometime before 19 July 1775, presumably in England. The readily available UK census starts in 1841, by which time she is well established in Australia, and it’s not possible to find a missing person gap in a census. Esther was Jewish and the first of several records to confirm this fact is the list of prisoners in Newgate prison. It is unlikely that she was baptised, and I have not been able to locate any sacrament for her in the Church of England or non-Conformist registers, and the birth of Jewish girls was not recorded in their own registers [2]. As a result, I have had more than 20 years of fruitless searching for her parents or English family of origin.

The Old Bailey Sessions House 1790, John Ellis, Corporation of London Libraries and Guildhall Art Library  

Copy of Old Bailey transcription of Esther Spencer’s trial 19 July 1794 http://www.londonlives.org/browse.jsp?id=t17940716-64-defend646&div=t17940716-64#highlight
Sometime before her conviction Esther married a Mr Spencer, as her surname was recorded as Spencer on her Old Bailey trial records [3] and she was described as a married woman in the Newgate prison registers.
No marriage record between Esther and Mr Spencer has been found to date.  Subsequently Esther was convicted of theft on 16 July 1794 at age 19, and tried at The Old Bailey. She was “indicted for stealing, on the 17th of July, two silver salt holders, value 18s. two silver salt spoons, value 2s. two silver pepper castors, value 1£. a silver table spoon, value 14s. the goods of Jacob Ruffy.” The Newgate Prison entry book describes her as being “19, 5’4”, dark hair, dark eyes, dark complexion, London, married woman Jewess” [4].
A variety of records exist detailing Esther’s ordeal in London as a prisoner in Newgate, during the 16 months she waited for decisions to be made about her pardon, and her many months of incarceration before boarding the Indispensable.  These can be found on the London Lives website www.london.lives.org , which also links in with the Old Bailey trials. 

This example is A Continuation of the names of the several Prisoners Confined in Newgate on the 28th Septr  1794. Here she is described as “19. 5/4 dark hair dark Eyes dark Complexion London Jewess Marr'd”.  These descriptors are almost verbatim from the Home Office: Criminal Registers, Middlesex and Home Office: Criminal Registers, England and Wales [5] which was compiled at the end of July 1794 and can be found on www.Ancestry.com. One can assume that the list in this image was drawn up from the Home Office’s July Sessions for Middlesex document. If any of these details were incorrect in the original document, they are likely to remain incorrect on all subsequent documents, as Esther was illiterate. It is unknown whether she would have been a party to the writing of the entries other than verbally responding to questions about her age and marital status, etc. This can make searching for other records more difficult, as we may be looking for a red herring. For example, if Esther wasn’t indeed aged 19 at this time we are unlikely to find a baptism record for her around 1775.
Various sources, such as the New South Wales, Australia, Settler and Convict Lists, 1787-18346 shows us that Esther arrived in Sydney on 30 April 1796 where she had quickly took up with convict John Fitz, with whom she had her first two children, Joseph [7] and Susannah [8]. Joseph, died as an infant [9] and was buried in the Old Sydney Burial Ground where Sydney Town Hall now stands [10]. Fitz then disappears from the records and in 1800 Esther takes up with fellow convict and builder, Englishman Thomas Stubbs. Esther’s son, Joseph, was buried under the name of Stubbs, so the relationship between Esther and Thomas must have begun between Joseph’s baptism on 2 Feb 1800 and his burial in October 1800. They have nine children together, the first being my 4x great-grandmother, Mary Anne (Marian) Spencer Stubbs [11].
The Biographical Database of Australia at www.bda-online.org.au holds a wealth of records pertaining to the convict indents, musters and early church records. From these I have created a timeline of Esther’s particulars in relation to her convict status.

From these records it seems that Esther appears to have been classed as “Free By Servitude” by August 1806, as indicated in the NSW General Muster. This ties in with information from the State Records of New South Wales website on Pardons: “Convicts with life sentences generally received pardons. In the formative years of the colony the Governor possessed the discretion to grant free pardons and conditional pardons as rewards for good behaviour, for special skills or for undertaking special responsibilities. Governor Macquarie introduced new regulations setting minimum periods to be served for both pardons and tickets of leave.” [12] No record of a Ticket of Leave or Conditional Pardon have ever been found for Esther, so it is assumed that her pardon was one of these indulgences by Governor Macquarie.
These records only touch on the great amount of information that exists regarding Esther’s life before and after her conviction. She died at age 80, after many years of child-bearing and business owning. In 1855 she was buried in the Jewish section of the Devonshire Street Cemetery, which was disturbed in 1901 for the construction of Central Railway Station. Exhumations were relocated to Bunnerong Cemetery in Sydney’s Eastern Suburbs, although none of Esther’s remains were found at the time.

[1] "Browse - Central Criminal Court". 2016.Oldbaileyonline.Org. Accessed June 10 2016. http://www.oldbaileyonline.org/browse.jsp?id=t17940716-64-defend646&div=t17940716-64#highlight
[2] "Birth | Jewish Virtual Library". 2016.Jewishvirtuallibrary.Org. Accessed June 10 2016. http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/judaica/ejud_0002_0003_0_03015.html
[3] "Browse - London Lives". 1794.Londonlives.Org. Accessed June 11 2016. http://www.londonlives.org/browse.jsp?id=t17940716-64-defend646&div=t17940716-64#highlight
[4] Source Citation Class: HO 26; Piece: 4; Page: 15 Source Information Ancestry.com. England & Wales, Criminal Registers, 1791-1892 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations Inc, 2009. This collection was indexed by Ancestry World Archives Project contributors. Original data: Home Office: Criminal Registers, Middlesex and Home Office: Criminal Registers, England and Wales; Records created or inherited by the Home Office, Ministry of Home Security, and related bodies, Series HO 26 and HO 27; The National Archives of the UK (TNA), Kew, Surrey, England.
 [5] Source Citation Class: HO 26; Piece: 3; Page: 86 Source Information Ancestry.com. England & Wales, Criminal Registers, 1791-1892 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations Inc, 2009. This collection was indexed by Ancestry World Archives Project contributors. Original data: Home Office: Criminal Registers, Middlesex and Home Office: Criminal Registers, England and Wales; Records created or inherited by the Home Office, Ministry of Home Security, and related bodies, Series HO 26 and HO 27; The National Archives of the UK (TNA), Kew, Surrey, England. 
[6] Source Citation Class: HO 10; Piece: Source Information Ancestry.com. New South Wales, Australia, Settler and Convict Lists, 1787-1834 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations Inc, 2007. Original data: Home Office: Settlers and Convicts, New South Wales and Tasmania; (The National Archives Microfilm Publication HO10, Pieces 1-4, 6-18, 28-30); The National Archives of the UK (TNA), Kew, Surrey, England.
[7] NSW Birth Certificate, 1797/468, Fitz, Joseph C
[8] NSW Birth Certificate, 1799/615, Fitz, Susannah S
[9] NSW Death Certificate, 1800/1008, Stubbs, Joseph
[10] "Old Sydney Burial Ground - City Of Sydney". 2016. www.cityofsydney.nsw.gov.au . Accessed June 11 2016. http://www.cityofsydney.nsw.gov.au/learn/sydneys-history/people-and-places/old-sydney-burial-ground
[11] “"Convict Records — State Records NSW". 2016. www.records.nsw.gov.au . Accessed June 11 2016. http://www.records.nsw.gov.au/state-archives/research-topics/convicts/convicts#pardons-conditional-and-absolute.

Monday, 25 April 2016

Two Tuck brothers and a cousin who didn't make it home. Lest we forget.

Private John William TUCK was born on 10 June 1893 in Flinders, Victoria to Thomas TUCK and Elizabeth HADDOW. He enlisted in Melbourne at age 22 years 8 months to fight in the 6th Infantry Brigade, 21st Infantry Battalion, 13th reinforcements.
John died at age 25 on 14 November 1918 at the 3rd General Hospital, Abbeville, Picardie, France, from broncho-pneumonia.
He was buried in the Abbeville Communal Cemetery Extension Plot 5, Row C, No 29.
His name is on panel 103 on the Roll of Honour at the Australian War Memorial in Canberra.

Private John William Tuck - Abbeville
Panel 103 Australian War Memorial

Private Henry Thomas TUCK (younger brother to John William TUCK) was born on 11 October 1896 in Flinders, Victoria also to Thomas TUCK and Elizabeth HADDOW. A farmer, he enlisted at age 18 years 9 months in Melbourne to serve in the 4th Infantry Brigade, 14th Infantry Battalion, 12th reinforcements. Henry was killed in action at age 19 on 11 August 1916 in France.
His name is on the Villers-Bretonneux Memorial, at Picardie, France.
His name is on panel 142 on the Roll of Honour at the Australian War Memorial in Canberra.

Private Henry Thomas Tuck - Villers-Bretonneux
Panel 142 Australian War Memorial

Private William TUCK (cousin to John and Henry) was born 17 December 1880 in Flinders, Victoria to Henry TUCK and Margaret DOWLING. He enlisted at age 35 in Townsville, Queensland into the 11th Infantry Brigade, 41st Infantry Battalion, "C" Company. William died at age 37 on 18 April 1917 at the 1st Australian Auxiliary Hospital, Harefield, Middlesex, England of an amoebic abscess to the liver and empyema.
He was buried the same day in the Australian section of the Harefield, Hillingdon churchyard, grave 18 or 20.
His name is on panel 134 on the Roll of Honour at the Australian War Memorial in Canberra.

Private William Tuck - Hillingdon churchyard
Panel 134 Australian War Memorial

Placing a poppy in Canberra 2015

Australian War Memorial, Canberra

Memorial to the local fallen at Flinders, Victoria

They shall grow not old, as we that are left grow old:
Age shall not weary them, nor the years condemn.
At the going down of the sun and in the morning,
We will remember them.

Lest we forget.

Friday, 1 April 2016

I've been Pandora'd - in two ways!!

Michelle Nichols from the Australian Local & Family History Bloggers Facebook group suggested a number of family history blogs for archiving by PANDORA, which is the National Library of Australia's website archive. This "Janelle's Family Tree Addiction" blog has been selected, and I'm thrilled!!

I was notified in January but I was holidaying in Tasmania at the time so I postponed my excitement until I got home.

I am allowed to add a special PANDORA button to my blog's homepage, which I'll attempt to add when I'm not so tired. Thanks to Michelle, the NLA, and PANDORA :)

Coincidentally, I've also bought myself another charm for my bracelet from the other Pandora - the jewellery store (no relation to the National Library this time). It's very appropriate. And sparkly.

Saturday, 26 March 2016

More family resemblances

Thanks to Barry Nesbitt, a genealogist in my husband's family who published the book "The Dr James Macky Story: From a Farmer in County Donegal, Ireland to Physician/Surgeon in New South Wales" I was able to see some photos of my husband's ancestors and could instantly see the likeness between him and his great grandfather and great-great grandfather.

My husband, Dean Macky, on our wedding day in 2004, age 39

Age 27

Dr James Macky 1844 - 1909
Photo probably taken in 1885 at his graduation from the University of Edinburgh Medical School, age 41.